The Nobel Prize winning economist and best-selling author explains why saving Europe may mean abandoning the euro."
The Euro and the Battle of Ideas
Why is Europe's great monetary endeavor, the Euro, in trouble? A string of economic difficulties in Greece, Ireland, Spain, Italy, and other Eurozone nations has left observers wondering whether the currency union can survive. In this book, Markus Brunnermeier, Harold James, and Jean-Pierre Landau argue that the core problem with the Euro lies in the philosophical differences between the founding countries of the Eurozone, particularly Germany and France. But the authors also show how these seemingly incompatible differences can be reconciled to ensure Europe’s survival. As the authors demonstrate, Germany, a federal state with strong regional governments, saw the Maastricht Treaty, the framework for the Euro, as a set of rules. France, on the other hand, with a more centralized system of government, saw the framework as flexible, to be overseen by governments. The authors discuss how the troubles faced by the Euro have led its member states to focus on national, as opposed to collective, responses, a reaction explained by the resurgence of the battle of economic ideas: rules vs. discretion, liability vs. solidarity, solvency vs. liquidity, austerity vs. stimulus. Weaving together economic analysis and historical reflection, The Euro and the Battle of Ideas provides a forensic investigation and a road map for Europe’s future.
Social Determinants of Health
Poorer people live shorter lives and suffer higher levels of ill health than the more affluent in society, and this disparity highlights the sensitivity of human health to socio-economic factors. This booklet examines this social gradient in health and explains how psychological and social influences affect physical health and longevity. It also considers the role of public policy in promoting a social environment that is more conducive to better health. Topics discussed include: stress, early childhood health, social exclusion, work, unemployment and job insecurity, social support networks, the effects of alcohol and other drug addictions, food and nutrition, and healthier transport systems.
European Report on Preventing Elder Maltreatment
Elder maltreatment is pervasive throughout the WHO European Region: at least 4 million elderly people are estimated to experience maltreatment in any one year and 2500 of them will die each year. Most countries in the region have an ageing population, putting increasing numbers of people at risk. This report highlights the biological, social, cultural, economic and environmental factors that influence the risk of being a victim or perpetrator of elder maltreatment, as well as the protective factors that can help prevent it. There is some evidence of effective interventions, including psychological programs for perpetrators and programs designed to change attitudes towards older people, improve the mental health of caregivers and, in earlier life, to promote nurturing relationships and learn social skills. The evidence base needs to be strengthened, but surveys show that the public and policy-makers are already concerned about the problem. This report proposes a set of actions for Member States, international agencies, nongovernmental organizations, researchers, practitioners and other stakeholders to strengthen the policy response and devote adequate resources to the issue.
Which European Union
"In the EU experience, the very concept of union was formally used for the first time in the preamble of the 1957 Rome Treaty establishing the European Economic Community (EEC), when the signatory states expressed their determination "to lay the foundations of an ever-closer union among the peoples of Europe". This concept was then strengthened in the 1992 Maastricht Treaty or Treaty establishing the European Union (TEU), when the signatory states reaffirmed in the Treaty's preamble their resolution "to continue the process of creating an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe""--
The Challenge of Obesity in the WHO European Region and the Strategies for Response
In a brief, clear and easily accessible way, this summary illustrates the dynamics of the obesity epidemic and its impact on public health throughout the WHO European Region, particularly in eastern countries. It describes how factors that increase the risk of obesity are shaped in different settings, such as the family, school, community and workplace. It makes both ethical and economic arguments for accelerating action against obesity, and analyses effective programs and policies in different government sectors, such as education, health, agriculture and trade, urban planning and transport. The summary also describes how to design policies and programs to prevent obesity and how to monitor progress, and calls for specific action by stakeholders: not only government sectors but also the private sector - including food manufacturers, advertisers and traders - and professional consumers' and international and intergovernmental organizations such as the European Union.
Beginning in the 1950s, "Euro Horror" movies materialized in astonishing numbers from Italy, Spain, and France and popped up in the US at rural drive-ins and urban grindhouse theaters such as those that once dotted New York's Times Square. Gorier, sexier, and stranger than most American horror films of the time, they were embraced by hardcore fans and denounced by critics as the worst kind of cinematic trash. In this volume, Olney explores some of the most popular genres of Euro Horror cinema—including giallo films, named for the yellow covers of Italian pulp fiction, the S&M horror film, and cannibal and zombie films—and develops a theory that explains their renewed appeal to audiences today.
The End of the Euro
The End of the Euro begins with an overview of the birth of the euro itself. Understanding this history is essential to understand the anomalies built into the project from the beginning. These anomalies form the subject of chapter two, along with how they led to the situation that turned Greece, Portugal, and Spain into euro-destroying economic disaster areas. Chapter three shows how this was not an unforeseeable situation, as Europe’s history is filled with earlier failed attempts to build monetary unions. Chapter four is focused on Germany, by far the most important country within EMU, and why the chances of Germany leaving the union are much higher than is generally assumed. The book concludes with an analysis of what lies in wait for the remains of the monetary union — and for a deeply divided and troubled continent in general. Either the EMU transforms itself fundamentally or it disintegrates.
In 2001, Greece saw its application for membership into the Eurozone accepted, and the country sat down to the greatest free lunch in economic history. However, the coming years of global economic prosperity would lead to unrestrained spending, cheap borrowing, and a failure to implement financial reform, leaving the country massively exposed to a financial crisis—which duly struck. In Bust: Greece, the Euro, and the Sovereign Debt Crisis, Bloomberg columnist Matthew Lynn explores Greece's spectacular rise and fall from grace and the global repercussions of its financial disaster. Page by page, he provides a thrilling account of the Greek financial crisis, drawing out its origins, how it escalated, and its implications for a fragile global economy. Along the way, Lynn looks at how the Greek contagion has spread like wildfire throughout Europe and explores how government ineptitude as well as financial speculators compounded the problem. Blending financial history, politics, and current affairs, Lynn skillfully tells the story of how one nation rode the wave of economic prosperity and brought a continent, a currency, and, potentially, the global financial system to its knees. Lively, engaging, and thought provoking, Bust reminds us just how interconnected the world really is.
Europe s Orphan
Originally conceived as part of a unifying vision for Europe, the euro is now viewed as a millstone around the neck of a continent crippled by vast debts, sluggish economies, and growing populist dissent. In Europe's Orphan, leading economic commentator Martin Sandbu presents a compelling defense of the euro. He argues that rather than blaming the euro for the political and economic failures in Europe since the global financial crisis, the responsibility lies firmly on the authorities of the eurozone and its member countries. The eurozone's self-inflicted financial calamities and economic decline resulted from a toxic cocktail of unforced policy errors by bankers, politicians, and bureaucrats; the unhealthy coziness between finance and governments; and, above all, an extreme unwillingness to restructure debt. Sandbu traces the origins of monetary union back to the desire for greater European unity after the Second World War. But the euro’s creation coincided with a credit bubble that governments chose not to rein in. Once the crisis hit, a battle of both ideas and interests led to the failure to aggressively restructure sovereign and bank debt. Ideologically informed choices set in motion dynamics that encouraged more economic mistakes and heightened political tensions within the eurozone. Sandbu concludes that the prevailing view that monetary union can only work with fiscal and political union is wrong and dangerous—and risks sending the continent into further political paralysis and economic stagnation. Contending that the euro has been wrongfully scapegoated for the eurozone’s troubles, Europe’s Orphan charts what actually must be done for the continent to achieve an economic and political recovery.